Did you know that the phrases ‘bug’ and ‘debugging’ were created in 1947? Grace Murray, a Harvard University scientist who worked with the Mark II computer, discovered that a moth had been entangled in a relay, preventing it from making contact. She documented the occurrence in the work log, tapping the moth as evidence and referring to the moth as the “bug” that caused the error and the activity of eradicating the fault as “debugging.”
While words like ‘testing’ and ‘quality testing’ can appear new, software testing has been carried out and evolved from the birth of computing. Software testing is an essential aspect of software development, as it assures the quality and reliability of the product and decreases the possibility of mistakes or failures in the software. Software testing is a highly specialized and demanding profession requiring a thorough grasp of testing approaches, tools, and procedures. Let’s discuss the types of software testing in software engineering.
Different Types of Software Testing
Software testing categories relate to the many classes of software testing depending on the testing goals, objectives, and methodologies utilized. The categories describe the scope and goal of testing and ensure that all parts of the program are tested.
Software testing can be divided into several groups depending on various parameters. Some of the most frequent software testing classifications are
Based on Testing Objectives
Here are the types of software testing in software engineering based on the testing objectives:
1. Functional Testing
It confirms the software against the functional requirements or specifications. Hence, it confirms that every feature of the software is functioning properly.
2. Non-functional Testing
It confirms the software against all the non-functional aspects like reliability, usability, and performance. Hence, it helps reduce the risk and costs linked with the software’s non-functional aspects.
3. Regression Testing
It confirms the changes to the software over time and includes regression tests. Hence, it helps improve software performance, detect issues, and correct bugs.
4. Performance Testing
It checks the software’s performance, such as response time, scalability, and resource consumption under various workloads and situations. It guarantees that the program satisfies its performance criteria and handles the anticipated user demand.
5. Security Testing
It evaluates the software’s security features, such as its capacity to guard against unauthorized access, data breaches, and other security risks. It guarantees that the software is secure and satisfies the standards for security.
6. Usability Testing
It checks the software’s usefulness, such as its simplicity of use, user interface, and user experience. It guarantees that the program is user-friendly and satisfies users’ demands and expectations.
Based on the Testing Approach
Here are the types of testing based on the testing approach.
7. Black box Testing
It analyzes the software functionality without determining its design or internal structure. It can be functional or non-functional testing. The options in functional black box testing are sanity testing, smoke testing, system testing, integration testing, user acceptance testing, and regression testing. The non-functional black-box testing types are usability testing, load testing, performance testing, scalability testing, stress testing, and compatibility testing.
8. White Box Testing
It tests the internal software structure, including the codes and designs. White box testing improves the security and design of the software while verifying the input and output flow. The types of white box testing include unit testing, static analysis, dynamic analysis, statement coverage, branch testing coverage, security testing, and mutation testing.
9. Grey Box Testing
A software testing approach that combines black box and white box testing aspects. It entails testing the program with a limited understanding of its underlying workings, usually with access to its source code or design documentation. The purpose is to test the program from a user’s point of view while taking into account the internal workings of the software.
Based on Testing Scope
Here are the types of testing in software engineering based on the testing scope.
10. Unit Testing
The testing method tests the specific units or components of the software. Hence, the testing professionals confirm if the application is working as intended or not using unit testing. It is performed at the lowest parts of the software testing by checking different software units in isolation. Popular frameworks and tools used in unit testing are xUnit, NUnit, and JUnit. It introduces code changes to prevent new bugs.
11. Integration Testing
Integration testing is the testing method of determining the behavior of different software units with each other. It identifies and resolves the problems due to the interaction of different software units. The four integration testing techniques are top-down, bottom-up, sandwich, and big-bang. Popular frameworks and tools used in integration testing are Citrus, FitNesse, Protractor, Rational Integration tester, and TESSY.
12. System Testing
It is a type in which the complete system is examined to ensure that it fulfills its functional and non-functional criteria. It entails testing the integration of various components and systems to ensure that they perform properly together to produce the intended results.
13. User Acceptance Testing (UAT)
This testing is conducted by end-users or customers to ensure that the product satisfies their needs and expectations. It entails testing the program in a real-world situation to confirm that it functions properly and is simple. It is the final level of testing before the program is deployed.
15. End-to-End Testing
End-to-end testing ensures that the complete software system functions properly from start to finish. It entails putting the program through its paces in a real-world setting with all of its components and systems, including third-party integrations and external dependencies. The purpose is to guarantee that the software system functions properly and satisfies the needs of the company.
Based on Testing Techniques
Here are the types of testing in software based on the testing technique.
16. Manual Testing
It is a process of manually testing software by a tester without the use of any automated tools. It entails manually executing test cases and comparing the results against expected outcomes to find software bugs or problems.
17. Automated Testing
It is a process of testing software using automated tools and scripts. It entails automatically designing and running test cases, as well as evaluating the results against predicted outcomes. Automated testing aids in increasing testing efficiency, decreasing testing time, and increasing test coverage
18. Static Testing
This testing checks software code or documentation without running it. It entails inspecting and refining the code or documentation for faults, bugs, or difficulties. Code reviews, walkthroughs, and inspections are some examples.
Based on Testing Levels
Here are the different types of software testing based on the testing levels.
19. Component Testing
Component testing is a sort of testing that examines individual software components or modules for their functionality, performance, and security. It entails testing each component separately and evaluating its behavior against expected results.
20. Integration Testing
It is a sort of testing that evaluates the interaction of several software components or modules. It entails evaluating the interfaces between components and validating their behavior as a group to uncover software bugs or difficulties.
21. System Testing
System Testing is a type of software testing that evaluates the complete software system as a whole. It entails evaluating the integration of various components and systems, validating system requirements, and confirming the overall functionality, performance, and security of the program.
22. Acceptance Testing
Acceptance testing confirms that the software fits the business requirements and the demands of the users. It entails testing the program in a real-world setting with actual data to confirm that it works properly and is simple. It is the final level of testing before the program is made available to the public.
Advantages of Software Testing
There are a lot of advantages of software testing using various software testing tools. The advantages of software testing are as follows:
- Ensured Quality: Software testing confirms the quality of the product before delivering it to the end users by running different tests to confirm performance parameters.
- Secured Usage: It ensures secure software or applications prevent the chances of a data breach or other security risks.
- Satisfied Customers: Software development organizations can improve customer satisfaction by introducing different software testing methods.
- Reduced Failures: It helps determine the possible failure chances to improve the software’s working and brand value, which makes the software highly reliable and robust.
- Saves Money: Software testing techniques can identify bugs or errors at an earlier stage. This helps businesses save dollars by making the required corrections on time.
As the software business expands, so does the demand for qualified software testers, resulting in plenty of career possibilities in this discipline. The emergence of new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning is also opening up new opportunities for software testers to apply their talents in novel ways. The growing use of Agile and DevOps approaches is altering software testing methods, opening up new job opportunities for testing experts.
There are many different types of software testing, some of them are accessibility testing, black box testing, end-to-end testing, functional testing, integration testing, load testing, etc.
There are three main types of testing available, that are manual, automated, and continuous software testing.
The 5 testing methods are unit tests, integration tests, functional tests, regression tests, and acceptance tests.
The two main categories of software testing are functional and non-functional testing.