The process of evaluating an application to ensure that it meets the specific requirements, has no defects, and works as expected is known as software testing. The purpose of this process is to identify the defects, errors, or any bugs that might be there in the software.
The software testing field is growing rapidly. Therefore, there are a lot of job roles that you can choose from in this field. In this blog, we will go through various Software Testing interview questions, scenario-based interview questions and answers, and more.
Basic Software Testing Interview Questions for Freshers
The following is a set of Software Testing interview questions for freshers that might turn out to be helpful.
Q1. Define Software Testing.
Software testing is the process of evaluating a software application to ensure that it meets specific requirements, works as expected, and is free from defects.
Q2. Name the different types of software testing.
There are various types of software testing available for the purpose of examining an application, such as functional testing, performance testing, security testing, usability testing, compatibility testing, and regression testing.
Q3. Define Test Plan.
A document that outlines the testing approach, scope, and objectives for a software testing project is known as a test plan. It has features that include test objectives, test schedules, testing strategies, and resources required to conduct specific testing.
Q4. State the difference between validation and verification.
The process of evaluating an application to ensure that it meets the requirements and specifications set by the stakeholders is known as verification. The process of evaluating an application to ensure that it meets the needs of the end users is known as validation.
Q5. Define test case.
A set of instructions or steps that are used to test specific functionalities or features of an application is known as a test case. It also includes details like input data, expected results or output, and pre/post conditions.
Q6. State the difference between white-box testing and black-box testing.
A testing technique where the tester has no specific knowledge of the internal working of the software application is known as black-box testing.
A testing technique where the tester has all the knowledge of the internal working of the software application is known as white-box testing.
Q7. Define regression testing.
The process of re-testing an application after changes have been made to ensure that existing functionality has not been affected is known as regression testing.
Q8. State the difference between a defect and a bug.
A flaw in the software that prevents it from functioning as intended is known as a defect. Meanwhile, a defect that causes the software to produce incorrect or unexpected results is known as a bug.
Q9. Define usability testing.
The process of defining an application to ensure that it is easy to use and user-friendly is known as usability testing. The features involved in this testing are navigation, user interface, and user experience.
Q10. List the advantages of automated testing.
- Testing is faster in automated testing.
- It is more reliable.
- It is more efficient than manual testing.
- Automated testing is more efficient than manual testing.
- It can perform repetitive tasks.
- The tasks and tests performed by automated testing are sometimes impossible for humans to perform or understand.
Q11. Define API.
API or Application Programming Interface is a means of communication between two software. It abstracts a program’s internal workings and complexities and allows the user to focus on the inputs and outputs required to use it.
Q12. Define the test environment.
The environment consisting of a server on which the tester runs is known as a test environment. It presents the actual hardware on which the software runs after production.
Q13. What does a test plan include?
A test plan includes the following details:
- Test Strategy
- Test Scope
- Test Objective
- Resource Planning
- Reason for Testing
- Exit Criteria
- Test Deliverables
Q14. Define Test Report.
A document that includes a summary of activities, objectives, and results is known as a test report. It helps track the status of the activities and if the product or service is ready for launch. It is also required to reflect on the testing results.
Q15. What does a test report include?
- Test Objective
- Product Information
- Test Summary
Software Testing Interview Questions for Experienced
Now that we know the basics of software testing and questions that could be asked from the freshers during an interview, it is important for experienced candidates to have a gist about what could be asked from them during an interview for experienced positions. Given below are a few software testing interview questions for experienced candidates:
Q16. What is boundary value analysis?
A black-box software testing technique that will use boundary values to create test cases is known as Boundary Value Analysis (BVA). It includes the boundaries in the test cases, the result is measured in positive and negative, i.e. if the input falls within the boundary, the test is positive, but if the input falls outside the boundary, the test is negative. There are various types of values in BVA, like maximum or minimum, inside or outside edge, and typical or error values.
Q17. Explain SDLC in software testing.
The development of low-cost, high-quality software with a short amount of development time is enabled by Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Its major purpose is to provide high-quality software in a short time that exceeds the expectations of the customers. It also provides a detailed plan of series that has its own processes. It is used by developers to complete their projects in less amount of time and meet the deadline.
Q18. Explain the software testing life cycle.
- Requirement Analysis: The tester must know what the application is supposed to do before getting into software testing. The method will not be effective if they have no idea about what the application is expected to do.
- Test Planning: A plan of testing can only be created once the requirements are clear to the tester. They can include the testing plan of various features such as parts of the software and the objective of the software. The activities also include documentation, time and effort, and tools and platforms.
- Test Environment: This works in the development environment, i.e., the developer’s computer will have a different environment than what the software will run on during production. The testing environment is set up to test the data for a smooth user experience.
- Test Execution: The tester runs the software under test and verifies the expected output, which is known as test execution. It can only be done once the tester has understood the software, has tested data, and tested the software in a test environment.
- Test Closure: This is the final step, which has two possible outcomes. A bug or error could be detected in this process, or the software will work perfectly. It indicates the end of the software testing life cycle.
Q19. Explain Functional Testing.
It is a form of black-box testing and mainly focuses on the software’s functional requirements. It looks after the required behavior in the system in terms of input and output. Its main purpose is to validate the functional requirements of the software. Hence, it does not pay any heed to performance, reliability, and usability.
Q20. Explain Non-functional Testing.
The non-functional testing checks the non-functional requirements of the software, which means the quality of the system. It ensures the performance, reliability, scalability, and security of the system and always comes into use after functional testing. It makes sure that the user has a smooth experience with the system, is secure, and performs well even under heavy load.
Q21. State some important testing metrics.
The following are the important testing metrics used in software testing:
- The number of total defects found.
- The number of total bugs that were fixed.
- The number of problems that were caused by an error.
- Over time bug find and fix rate.
- Bugs that are by feature area.
- The average time taken for a bug to be found and fixed.
- The total time spent on the development of new features compared to the time taken to find and fix the bugs.
- Outstanding bugs before releasing the software.
- Failures and bugs that were reported by the user compared to the bugs that were found by the tester of the software.
Q22. Explain Test Driven Development.
Test-driven development is a popular software development technique introduced by Kent Beck. It works on a unique cycle in which a developer writes a failing test and then writes enough code to make that test pass, after that, they add another failed test and repeat the same process. It is repeated until the developer has a fully working feature.
Q23. Explain Selenium and list the benefits it provides.
Selenium is a web browser automation tool through which the test that you need to run on the web is automated. The following are the benefits that it offers:
- It is open-source and does not require a license.
- It has the ability to support all the languages, such as Java, C, Python, and Ruby.
- It also supports all the web browsers, such as Google Chrome and Firefox.
- It can be integrated with other frameworks and tools in order to build a test suite for the software.
Also Read: Software Testing Tools
Q24. Explain browser automation.
The process of testing the web application’s functionality automatically in a browser is known as browser automation. It launches the program, navigates to the application, and interacts with the user interface. It can be quick and very speedy as compared to testing that is conducted by a human tester which takes a lot of time. Browser automation is a part of automated testing and examples include Selenium and Cypress.
Q25. Explain the workbench concept.
A document that explains the detailed process of completing an activity is known as Workbench. It works as a platform that provides the tester a place to build and monitor their work structures. The task can be divided into phases to meet the expectations of the customer.
Following are the tasks that are embedded in the workbench concept:
- Production Output
Q26. Explain Alpha Testing.
A type of software testing conducted to identify bugs and errors in the software application before it is released to the public is known as alpha testing. It is usually performed after the software application has been developed, but before it is released to the beta testing phase.
Q27. Explain Beta Testing.
A type of software testing conducted by end-users or a group of individuals outside of the development team before the software is released to the public is known as beta testing. It involves releasing a pre-release version of the software, known as a beta version to selected users who represent the target audience.
Q28. State the difference between Test Matrix and Traceability Matrix.
A document that is used to track the testing progress and results of a particular testing activity is known as a test matrix. It usually lists all the test cases and their corresponding results.
A document that maps requirements to the test cases that verify them is known as a traceability matrix. It provides a comprehensive view of the testing process.
Q29. Define the V Model in Software testing.
A testing framework that illustrates the relationship between software development and testing is known as the V model in software testing.
Q30. Explain static software testing.
A technique used to evaluate the software without actually executing the code that involves reviewing the software code, requirements, and design documents to identify errors, is known as status software testing. It helps detect errors early in the process of development, which reduces the cost of fixing them later.
Q31. Explain dynamic software testing.
The process of testing software applications, while they are running, is known as dynamic software testing. This process involves executing the software with different inputs and verifying the output against expected behavior. It is an important part of the software development process.
Q32. Explain the different types of severity that a tester can assign to a bug.
The following are different types of severity that a tester can assign to a bug:
- Critical: It refers to bugs that cause the system to crash, lose data, or become unusable. It is the highest level of severity.
- High: The bugs with high severity affect major functions though the system may not be completely unusable.
- Medium: The bugs with medium severity levels are less critical and affect minor functionality.
- Low: The least critical bugs that have a minimal impact on the system are low-severity bugs.
- Enhancement: They are considered a lower priority as they are suggestions for improvements and bugs.
Q33. State the effective ways to map automation testing success.
The following are the effective ways to map automation testing success:
- Code Coverage
- Test Coverage
- Defect Detection Rate
- Test Execution Time
- Cost Savings
- User Feedback
Q34. State the different HTTP status codes that a server can return.
The 3-digit numbers that indicate the status of an HTTP response are known as HTTP status codes. Five different classes have plenty of code, and the following are the common ones:
- 100 Continue
- 101 Switching Protocols
- 102 Processing
- 200 OK
- 201 Created
- 202 Accepted
- 300 Multiple Choices
- 301 Moved Permanently
- 302 Found
4xx Client Error
- 400 Bad Request
- 401 Unauthorized
- 402 Payment Required
5xx Server Error
- 500 Internal Error
- 501 Not Implemented
- 502 Bad Gateway
Q35. Explain cross-browser testing.
The process of testing a website or web application to ensure that it functions correctly across multiple web browsers is known as Cross-Browser testing. It involves testing a website on multiple browsers and their versions, including popular browsers such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Safari, and Internet Explorer.
Scenario-Based Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers
This field is completely practical and requires candidates that have a keen knowledge of the scenarios, problems, and issues that the user faces. To get a clearer idea about the subject and learn the advanced skills required to get stability in the field, you can check out a software testing course. Given below are a few scenario-based software testing interview questions and answers:
Q36. Scenario: A user is trying to log into the application, but the system is restricting them to enter the credentials. What could be the possible reasons for this?
There could be several reasons why the user is not able to enter their credentials. These include incorrect username or password, their account could be locked, the system may be down, or the application might not respond.
Q37. Scenario: A user reports that they are unable to access a specific feature in the application. How are you supposed to investigate this issue?
To check this, the application should be replicated on another machine and then checked if the user has the appropriate permissions to access the feature. If that feature is enabled and working, then the application should be checked for potential errors or issues in the application logs and if it is working as expected on the other system.
Q38. Scenario: A user has reported that they are unable to save their work in the application. How would you solve this issue?
Firstly, the application should be replicated on a different machine and then checked if the user has appropriate access and permissions to save their work on the application. Then the potential errors should be checked. If the issue still persists, other factors that could be causing this trouble, such as hardware problems or network issues should be checked.
Q39. Scenario: A user reports that the application is running slow. How would you identify the issue that’s causing the trouble?
To work on this issue, the system resources should be checked and it should be ensured that the application is not running out of memory. Then, other problems like network issues and large file processing should be checked. The applications running in the background should also be checked as they may cause the application to run slower.
Q40. Scenario: A user reported that the application crashes when they were performing a specific action. How would you debug this issue?
The problem should be replicated on another machine and then the application logs should be checked to track if there are any stack traces or error messages that may cause the crash. The other factors such as insufficient memory or hardware issues that might be contributing to this issue should be checked. If the problem still persists, debugging tools can be used to step through the code to identify the source of the issue.
Software Testing Interview Questions for Manual Testers
The following are a few manual software testing interview questions that the candidates might be asked to bag their dream job as a software tester.
Q41. List the advantages of manual software testing.
Following are a few advantages of manual software testing:
- It is cheap.
- It provides accurate visual feedback.
- It is considered ideal for testing minor changes in the software.
- It allows the tester to work without making the knowledge of automation tools necessary.
- It is considered to be great for testing user interfaces.
Q42. List the drawbacks of manual software testing.
The following are the disadvantages of manual software testing:
- It is susceptible to human error.
- Some complex tasks are unable to be accomplished through manual testing.
- Eventually, the cost adds up, so it can be expensive in the long run.
- It is hard to record the manual testing process; hence it can not be replicated.
Q43. Explain the Test Script.
A test case automated in any programming language is known as a test script. It is helpful for collecting instructions for the evaluation of an application’s functionality.
Explore our Programming courses to upgrade your skills in automation Testing.
Q44. Define Test Bed.
It is an environment set up for testing an application before it is made available to the customers. It is done for a smooth user experience, reliability, and better performance.
Q45. What are the different test levels?
There are four different test levels:
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
- System Testing
- Acceptance Testing
Q46. Define Test Harness.
A collection of test data and software used to put a program unit to the test while putting it under different conditions, such as stress and load while monitoring the outputs and behavior is known as a test harness.
Q47. Define Stub.
Stubs are known as “called-programs”. They are called as they are similar to modules required for the software development process. In three cases, stubs are used for top-down testing of modules. These cases are:
- When modules are not developed.
- When modules are missing in the development stage of software.
- When modules are not currently available.
A stub simulates a module that has all the capabilities of the unavailable or missing module and is generally used when low-level modules are unavailable.
Q48. How would a tester determine when to stop testing?
The following are the points which indicate that the testing should be stopped:
- The desirable quality is achieved.
- Adhering to the budget and timeline.
- The number of defects found while testing.
- The number of test cases completed.
- The risk factor that is associated with the project.
Q49. Can a test program be tested bug-free?
It is difficult to determine when to stop testing as software testing is an ongoing process. However, the following scenarios should be considered when deciding when to stop testing –
- When test case execution is completed.
- When a certain level of functional and code coverage has been achieved.
- When the timeline or budget of the project is around the corner.
- When the bug rate falls below a certain level and no potential bugs are found.
- When the management decides to stop testing.
Q50. Explain configuration management.
Managing and controlling the changes in a system’s software, network configuration, or hardware is known as configuration management. It works in maintaining the integrity of a system and ensures that it is secure and stable. The purpose of configuration management is to ensure system reliability and improve the performance of the system.
Most Commonly Asked Software Testing Basic Interview Questions
The following software testing interview questions may be asked of candidates while they appear for an interview:
Q51. What is Test Deliverable?
Test deliverables are the files and tools utilized during a project’s software testing. Some of the test deliverables are test strategy, test plan and estimation, test cases and test data, summary reports, closure reports, etc.
Q52. Explain bugs in software testing.
A bug is an error, fault, mistake, or failure while testing software. It indicates a defect while running an application or software. Bugs occur because of extra, missing, or wrong coding.
Q53. State the different debugging categories.
- Brute force method
- Forward analysis
- Deduction strategy
- Backtracking strategy
- Tracing method
- Remote debugging
- Automated debugging
Q54. Define user story.
A user story is an informal, all-inclusive description of a software feature written from the viewpoint of the clients or users.
Q55. Define A/B testing.
It compares two versions of applications or webpages to see which is superior based on the key metrics.
Q56. Explain spice in software testing.
Spice stands for “software process improvement and capability determination”. This technique is used to evaluate the software development process. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and International Standard Organization (ISO) together created SPICE.
Q57. Explain the purpose of TestNG.
TestNG means “test next generation”. The main purpose of TestNG is to control the execution of test cases. Therefore, it is also known as the testing framework.
Q58. What is sanity testing in software testing?
Sanity testing evaluates the basic functionality of new software development before full regression testing. It is carried out on initial development builds, focusing on critical functionality rather than identifying errors or bugs. Before conducting further testing, it is a fast way to ensure the software is functioning as expected. Sanity testing is a subset of regression testing, which ensures that code modifications are working properly. It is a determining point to check if testing can proceed, and is typically performed on software builds requiring immediate production deployment, such as bug fixes.
Q59. What is a latent and masked defect?
A latent defect is one that has been present for a long period of time and should have been detected at an early stage.
A masked defect is one that hides other defects, meaning that an unidentified existing issue will tend to generate additional defects.
Q60. Explain defects in software testing.
A defect is a deviation from expected results caused by errors or irregularities in the specifications of a system or software application. These errors are caused by developers during the development phase and can result in bugs. Defects indicate the software’s inability to meet specified requirements, preventing the application from performing expected functions.
Software testing is a crucial field to ensure your software meets the expectations of the customers. It ensures the quality, performance, and reliability of the software. The field is growing rapidly and comes with a lot of opportunities to get a job in the same field.